The World Health Organization (WHO) describes infection prevention and control (IPC) as a scientific strategy and workable solution intended to reduce the risk of infection-related harm to patients and medical personnel. It is a subset of epidemiology but also plays a crucial role in social sciences, global health, and infectious diseases.

A crucial public health concern for improving patient safety and the health system is effective IPC. Effective IPC measures are the foundation for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAI), epidemics (like the 2013–2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak), and pandemics of global concern (like the 2009 flu pandemic and the coronavirus disease 2019). Access to health care services that are designed and managed to reduce the risks of preventable HAI for patients and health care workers is a fundamental human right, according to the WHO’s Core Components of IPC.

The Spread of Infectious Disease

The successful spread of pathogenic microbes like bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi is what is referred to as an infection.

One person to another
by way of breath droplets (for example, coughing or sneezing)
through bodily fluids Direct contact with an infectious agent in the environment Childbirth (transplacental/perinatal) from mother to foetus


biological: intermediate host or vector (for example; Zika Virus)
Mechanical: Vehicle or Vector (for example; Plague – transmission of Yersinia Pestis by fleas)
Airborne (for example, Tuberculosis)

Triad of Epidemiology

Infections in people happen when an infectious bacterium enters the body, multiplies, and causes an immune response that could result in an infectious disease. The epidemiological triad[7] is a set of three factors that are necessary for the transmission of infectious disease:

The germ known as “the agent”—which might take the form of bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi—causes the infection

The disease’s intended victim is the host. The Environment – the circumstances and surroundings (these are external to the host)

Spread of Infection in Healthcare

A higher risk of disease transmission exists in healthcare institutions, including hospitals and primary care clinics, due to the presence and proportion of susceptible people there. Effective infection prevention and control lowers healthcare-associated illnesses by at least 30%[9], despite the fact that one in ten patients contract an infection while receiving care. The three elements needed for infection propagation in a medical context are as follows.

Source: locations where infectious agents can live, or source (e.g. sinks, hospital equipment, countertops, medical devices).

Environment: sinks, counters, hospital equipment, and patient care facilities.

People, including clients, staff members, and guests. 

Susceptible Person: A patient, healthcare worker, or visitor who has a weakened immune system or immunodeficiency: or who is not immune to a certain infectious disease.

Additionally, underlying medical disorders, drugs, and essential treatments and procedures that raise the risk of infection can make people more susceptible (for example, surgery).

Transmission – is the process through which germs are transferred from one person to another, 

Managing Communicable Diseases Within Communities

There are various protocols and recommendations that can be
followed to reduce the spread of infection between persons, within a group, and
globally[2]. Infection control and prevention is a global concern. Identifying
at-risk populations, such as kids, the elderly, and those with chronic
illnesses, can also help direct initiatives to safeguard these groups. When
considering infection control, the initial step can be to change community
behaviours, such as: 

consistent hand washing
Use of face masks as necessary (protect from and prevent spread of respiratory infections)
making use of insect repellents
ensuring that routine vaccines are up to date and taking part in immunisation programmes
taking prescribed drugs as advised by medical authorities, such as antibiotics
Social isolation is the avoidance of interpersonal engagement.
using condoms, especially with a new partner, during sexual activity

Other ways to stop the spread within communities include environmental ones like:

altering the environment

monitoring of diseases
food safety
in the air

List of Home Care Nursing Services Association
  1. Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses
  2. Academy of Neonatal Nursing
  3. ACNP- American College of Nurse Practitioners
  4. Advanced Practice Nurses of the Ozarks
  5. Advanced Practice Nurses of the Permian Basin
  6. Advanced Practitioners for the River Region
  7. Air & Surface Transport Nurses Association
  8. Alliance for Psychosocial Nursing
  9. Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments
  10. Alzheimer’s Association
List of Home Care Nursing Services Healthcare
  1. American Assembly for Men in Nursing
  2. American Assisted Living Nurses Association
  3. American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC)
  4. American Association for the History of Nursing
  5. American Association of Colleges of Nursing
  6. American Association of Critical Care Nurses
  7. American Association of Diabetes Educators
  8. American Association of Heart Failure Nurses
  9. American Association of Legal Nurse Consultants
  10. American Association of Managed Care Nurses
List of the 10 best Home Care Nursing Services University
  1. Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh
  2. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  3. Christian Medical College, Vellore
  4. Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai
  5. JKK Muniraja Institute of Health Sciences
  6. Lingayas Institute of Health Sciences
  7. Metro College of Health Sciences and Research
  8. Jr Kissan College of Pharmacy and Health Science
  9. Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences
  10. Acharya Institute of Health Science and Nursing
List of Home Care Nursing Services Society
  1. United Nurses Association
  2. Indian Nurses Association.
  3. All India Nurses Association
  4. Kerala Govt Nurses Association
  5. Kerala Nurses Union
  6. The American Association of Healthcare Administrative Management 
  7. American Health Information Management Association 
  8. The Healthcare Financial Management Association 
  9. National Association of Health Services Executives
  10. The National Association of Healthcare Access Management 

Submit Abstract

Sub-tracks of Infection Control

  1. Basic Principles.
  2. Hand hygiene.
  3. Standard precautions.
  4. Isolation of patients.
  5. Hierarchy of controls
  6. Hand Hygiene
  7. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  8. Respiratory and Cough Etiquette
  9. Dialysis Infection Prevention and Kidney Care
  10. Injection Safety and Point of Care Testing
  11. Prevention of Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI)
  12. Prevention of Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI)
  13. Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI)
  14. Prevention of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP)
  15. Surveillance and Disease Reporting
  16. Antibiotic Stewardship
  17. Environmental Cleaning
  18. Device Reprocessing
  19. Resources for Other Common Topics